Prevention of Foodborne Illness


Prevention of Foodborne Illness, Foodborne Illness Prevention, WHO Food Handling Recommendations

  • Prevention
  • Choose foods processed for safety
  1. Processed milk
  2. Precooked meats
  3. Well dried foods
  4. Acidified foods
  5. Pressure cooked foods
  • Prevention
  • Prepare food carefully
  1. Cook food thoroughly
    1. Safest to cook meats to 165-175 degrees F, and to eliminate pink coloration to meat
    2. Cook beef, pork, veal and lamb to at least 145 degrees F, with a 3 minute rest before cutting
    3. Cook poultry to at least 165 degrees F
    4. Cook ground meats to at least 160 degrees F
    5. Cook fish and seafood to at least 145 degrees F
  2. Avoid letting raw foods contact cooked foods
  3. Avoid letting foods cool before refrigerating
  4. Do not let foods sit out at room Temperature more than 2 hours (more than 1 hour if air temp >90 F)
  5. Use water of drinking quality to prepare food
  6. Protect food from Insects and animals
  7. Dry foods (e.g. breads, chips) are typically safe
  • Prevention
  • Foods prepared by others (avoid if possible)
  1. Rule 1: "Boil it, Cook it, Peel it or Forget it"
  2. Avoid raw, unpealed vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes (e.g. salads)
  3. Avoid pre-peeled fruit
  4. Avoid poorly-cooked or raw meat or seafood
  5. Avoid unpasteurized dairy products (cream, milk, cheese)
  6. Avoid cold sauces and salsas
  7. Avoid tap water or ice (Alcohol does not sterilize)
  8. Avoid foods that are not steaming hot
    1. Food should be heated above 65 degrees Celsius (150 F, some recommend 165 F)
    2. Keep meat, poultry and seafood at >140-150 degrees F while serving
    3. Food should be too hot to touch
  • Pearls
  • Keep food contact surfaces clean (3 wash cycle)
  1. Rinse off excess food
  2. Wash surface with detergent
  3. Rinse with sterilized water
    1. Tamed Chlorine to sterilize wash water
  • Prevention
  • Eat cooked food as soon as possible
  1. Avoid leftovers if possible
  2. Store foods carefully in clean containers
  • Prevention
  • Maintain clean hands
  1. Wash hands repeatedly (esp. before food prep and eating, or after handling animals, gardening or handling raw meats)
    1. Use Double Hand Washing technique
    2. Use Germicidal soap (e.g. Hibiclens)
    3. Use at least 500 cc of water for rinsing
  2. Prepackaged wipes (Chlorhexidine Gluconate)
    1. Use if water and germicidal soap not available
    2. Active Hand Washing is preferred for Debridement
  3. Do not cook if hands have open wounds
    1. Risk of Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
  • Prevention
  • Seafood Preparation
  1. Use separate cutting boards and knives for seafood
  2. Consider wearing gloves when working with raw seafood
  3. Refrigerate leftover seafood promptly
  4. Exercise caution with raw oysters and seafood
    1. Highest risk in mid-summer months
    2. Avoid if Immunocompromised
    3. Avoid in Chronic Liver Disease
  5. Cook shellfish thoroughly
    1. Boil: Until shells open, then for 5 minutes more
    2. Steam: Until shells open, then for 9 minutes more
  6. Cook shucked oysters thoroughly
    1. Boil: For 3 minutes minimum
    2. Fry: 10 minutes at 375 F minimum
  • Resources
  • References
  1. Wayman (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(6): 3-10