Thiamine, Vitamin B1, Thiamine pyrophosphate, ThPP, Thiamine Diphosphate

  • See Also
  • Physiology
  1. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is a heat labile, water-soluble Vitamin
    1. Structure is substituted Pyrimidine and thiazolium rings linked by a methylene group
  2. Thiamine reacts with Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to form an active, important coenzyme, Thiamine Pyrophosphate (ThPP)
  3. Thiamine Pyrophosphate is a coenyme in multiple Carbohydrate related reactions
    1. Succinyl CoA synthesis from Alpha-ketoglutarate via alpha-ketoglutarate dehyogenase (with ThPP) and multiple other enzymes
    2. Acetyl CoA synthesis from Pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase (with ThPP) and multiple other enzymes
    3. Glyceraldehyde 3P from Xylulose 5P and Ribose5P via transketolase (with ThPP) and multiple other enzymes (Pentose Phosphate Shunt)
  4. Other Thiamine activity
    1. Limits arterial Smooth Muscle Cell proliferation (via intracellular Glucose and Insulin inhibition)
    2. Protection against Lead Toxicity via inibition of lead-induced lipid peroxidation
  • Preparations
  • Dietary Sources
  1. Pork and other meats
  2. Liver
  3. Oysters and fish
  4. Whole-grain and enriched cereals, Pasta, Bread
  5. Wheat germ
  6. Green Peas
  7. Oatmeal
  8. Potatoes
  9. Legumes (Peas, Lima Beans)
  10. Sunflower Seeds
  • Associated Conditions
  • Deficiency
  • Resources