Strength Training


Strength Training, Resistance Training, Progressive Resistance Training, One Repetition Maximum, Isometric Exercise, Isometric Muscle Contraction, Isotonic Exercise, Isotonic Muscle Contraction, Isokinetic Exercise, Plyometrics, Eccentric Exercise, Core Muscle Exercise, Open Kinetic Chain Exercise, Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise

  • Definitions
  1. One Repetition Maximum
    1. Maximal weight that given Muscle can lift once
    2. Use to calculate starting strength program
  • Physiology
  1. Stages of Resistance Training (first 3-4 weeks)
    1. Strength gains from neural changes, motor unit firing
    2. Later strength gains from Muscle fiber hypertrophy
  2. Muscle Fiber Types
    1. Type I (slow twitch)
    2. Type IIa (can be adapted to either slow or fast)
    3. Type IIb (fast twitch)
  • Approach
  • Training Goals
  1. Muscular strength
    1. High intensity Exercise
    2. High level of resistance
    3. Low number of repetitions (maximum: 6 repetitions)
  2. Muscular endurance
    1. Low intensity Exercise
    2. Low level of resistance
    3. High number of repetitions (maximum: 20 repetitions)
  3. General Fitness
    1. Range: 8-12 repetitions
  • Types
  • Resistance Training
  1. Isometric Exercise (Isometric Muscle Contraction)
    1. Muscle Contraction without joint movement
    2. Muscle length remains constant
    3. Typically requres two opposing Muscles to fire simultaneously (e.g. biceps Muscle and triceps Muscle)
    4. Example: Hold a weight in hand for a set period of time
    5. Indications: Muscle toning and strengthening when joint use is restricted
  2. Isotonic Exercise (Isotonic Muscle Contraction)
    1. Constant Muscle resistance applied to joint range of motion
    2. Muscle shortens as it contracts, maintaining the same Muscle tension throughout movement
    3. Typically involves the contraction of an isolated Muscle group (e.g. biceps Muscle)
    4. Example: Training with weight machines and free weights
    5. Indications: Typical weight training regimen for general Muscle conditioning
  3. Isokinetic Exercise
    1. Variable resistance with fixed speed
    2. Trained with Cybex or Biodex Machines
  4. Eccentric Exercises
    1. Muscle lengthens while it contracts
    2. Example: Triceps lengthens during elbow extension
  5. Core Muscle Exercises
    1. Muscle Strengthening of the low back and Abdomen
    2. Examples: Pilates, Medicine Ball, Sit-Ups
  6. Variable resistance throughout Range of Motion
    1. Maximum overload training with cams and pulleys
  7. Plyometrics
    1. Eccentric loading with concentric Muscle action
    2. Trained with Hops, bounds, and depth jumps
  • Types
  • Kinetic Chain
  1. Open Kinetic Chain Exercise
    1. Distal extremity moves about fixed proximal extremity
    2. Example: Arm Curls (biceps contractions) move hand in arc around elbow
  2. Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise
    1. Proximal extremity moves about fixed distal extremity
    2. Example: Squats (feet are planted while knees are flexed and extended)
  • Protocol
  • Strength Training Routine (total time 30-60 minutes)
  1. General: Does not replace sports-related training
  2. Warm-Up
  3. Strength Training
  4. Cool down
  • Protocol
  • Program Design
  1. Initial design
    1. First 2 to 3 weeks: low volume with low intensity
  2. Overload principle
    1. Increase intensity, volume, and frequency
    2. End each set with maximum voluntary contraction
  3. Full range of motion should be Exercised
  4. Balance
    1. Train both Agonist and AntagonistMuscle groups
  5. Sequence
    1. Larger Muscle groups should be trained first
    2. Progress to smaller groups during workout
  6. Periodization
    1. Macrocycle: Year length cycle
    2. Mesocycle: Month length cycle
    3. Microcycle: Day to day variation over course of week
  7. Safety
    1. Spotter Use
      1. Particularly useful in final set
      2. Helps to coach on form
    2. Breathing
      1. Exhalation during lifting phase
      2. Inhalation during lowering phase
  • Protocol
  • Starting Regimen
  1. Perform 2-3 days per week
  2. Consider performing as circuit training
  3. Work each Muscle group individually
  4. Intensity increases with each set
    1. Low Intensity (40% of One Repetition Maximum)
      1. One set of 10-15 repetitions
    2. Moderate Intensity (40-60% of One Repetition Maximum)
      1. One set of 8-10 repetitions
    3. High Intensity (>60% of One Repetition Maximum)
      1. One set of 6-8 repetitions
  5. Advancing weights
    1. Advance when low intensity can be repeated 15 times
  6. Core Muscle Strength (10 repetitions for 1 set each)
    1. Balance ball may be used
    2. Abdominal curls
    3. Back extensions